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Glossary of Terms: F

Modification of a system that makes subsequent modifications easier.
Facilitation Model of Succession
This model of succession suggests that the change in plant species dominance over time is caused by modifications in the abiotic environment that are imposed by the developing community. Thus the entry and growth of the later species depends on earlier species preparing the ground.
Fahrenheit Scale
Scale for measuring temperature. In this scale, water boils at 212° and freezes at 32°.
Season between summer and winter. Astronomically it is the period from the autumnal equinox to the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere.
False Origin
Location of the starting coordinates picked to the south and west of the true origin of a rectangular coordinate system. False origins are used to avoid negative coordinates.
Falsification is a procedure used in science to test the validity of a hypothesis or theory. It involves stating some output from theory in specific and finding contrary cases among experiments or observations.
A fracture in rock caused by stress.
Fault Plane
The plane that represents the fracture surface of a fault.
Fault Scarp
The section of the fault plane exposed in a fault. Also called an escarpment.
Feedback Loop
Process where the output of a system causes positive or negative changes to some measured component of the system.
A group of common aluminum silicate minerals that contains potassium, sodium, or calcium.
Felsic Magma
Magma that is relatively rich in silica, sodium, aluminum, and potassium. This type of magma solidifies to form rocks relatively rich in silica, sodium, aluminum, and potassium.
A habitat composed of woodland and swamp.
Decomposition and breakdown of organic matter by anaerobic means.
A group of about 11,000 species of vascular seedless plants that belong to the division Pterophyta. About 75 percent of the various species of ferns are found in the tropics. Some ferns grow on the branches of trees as epiphytes.
Ferrel Cell
Three-dimensional atmospheric circulation cell located at roughly 30 to 60° North and South of the equator.
Sedimentary rock created by the chemical precipitation of iron.
Substance that adds inorganic or organic nutrients to soil for the purpose of increasing the growth of crops, trees, or other vegetation.
The distance of open water in one direction across a body of water over which wind can blow.
Field Capacity
The water remaining in a soil after the complete draining of the soil's gravitational water.
Névé on a glacier that survives the year's ablation season. With time much of the firn is transformed into glacial ice.
Firn Limit
The lower boundary of the zone of accumulation on a glacier where snow accumulates on an annual basis. Also called the Firn Line.
Firn Line
See firn limit.
First Law of Thermodynamics
See Law of Conservation of Energy.
Group of vertebrate animals that inhabit aquatic habitats.
Fission (Nuclear)
Process where the mass of an atomic nucleus is made smaller by the removal of subatomic particles. This process releases atomic energy in the form of heat and electromagnetic radiation.
Fissionable Isotope
Isotope that can undergo nuclear fission when hit by a neutron at the right speed. Examples include uranium-235 and plutonium-239.
Opening or crack in the Earth's crust.
A measure of the health of a species in terms of physiology and future reproductive success.
Fixed Energy
A process, like photosynthesis, where organisms repackage inorganic energy into organic energy.
A glacial valley or glacial trough found along the coast that is now filled with a mixture of fresh water and seawater.
Flash Flood
A rapid and short-lived increase in the amount of runoff water entering a stream resulting in a flood.
Chemical processes where salt causes the aggregation of minute clay particles into larger masses that are too heavy to remain suspended water.
Inundation of a land surface that is not normally submerged by water from quick change in the level of a water body like a lake, stream, or ocean.
Flood Basalt
See plateau basalt.
Relatively flat area found alongside the stream channel that is prone to flooding and receives alluvium deposits from these inundation events.
Flood Tide
Time during the tidal period when the tide is rising. Compare with ebb tide.
Substance, gas or liquid, that has the property of flow.
Fluid Drag
Reduction in the flow velocity of a fluid by the frictional effects of a surface.
Involving running water. Usually pertaining to stream processes.
See earthquake focus.
Föhn Wind
European equivalent of chinook wind.
Fog exists if the atmospheric visibility near the Earth's surface is reduced to 1 kilometer or less. Fog can be composed of water droplets, ice crystals or smoke particles. Fogs composed primarily of water droplets are classified according to the process that causes the air to cool to saturation. Common types of this type of fog include: radiation fog; upslope fog; advection fog; evaporation fog; ice fog; and frontal fog.
Wavelike layers in rock strata that are the result of compression.
The deformation of rock layers because of compressive forces to form folds.
Foliar Leaching
Process in which water from precipitation removes plant nutrients from the surface of leaves.
Process where once randomly distributed platy minerals in a rock become reoriented, because of metamorphism, in a parallel manner.
Food Chain
Movement of energy through the trophic levels of organisms. In most ecosystems, this process begins with photosynthetic autotrophs (plants) and ends with carnivores and detritivores.
Food Web
A model describing the organisms found in a food chain. Food webs describe the complex patterns of energy flow in an ecosystem by modeling who consumes who.
Foot Wall
The bottommost surface of an inclined fault.
Process that changes the state of rest or motion of a body.
Force of Acceleration
Force resulting in the speed of a moving body to increase.
Ecosystem dominated by trees. Major forest biomes include tropical evergreen forest, tropical savanna, deciduous forest, and boreal forest.
Microscopic organisms of the group protozoa that are found living mainly in marine environments. These organisms produce shells rich in calcium carbonate. Sedimentation and lithification of these shells produces the sedimentary rock chalk.
Foreset Bed
Deltaic deposit of alluvial sediment that is angled 5 to 25° from horizontal. Most of the delta is made up of these deposits.
Small earth tremors that occur seconds to weeks before a significant earthquake event.
Geologically preserved remains of an organism that lived in the past.
Fossil Fuel
Carbon based remains of organic matter that has been geologically transformed into coal, oil and natural gas. Combustion of these substances releases large amounts of energy. Currently, humans are using fossil fuels to supply much of their energy needs.
The change in state of matter from liquid to solid that occurs with cooling. Usually used in meteorology when discussing the formation of ice from liquid water.
Freezing Rain
A type of precipitation. Occurs when liquid rain hits a cold surface and then immediately freezes into ice. For this to occur, a surface temperature inversion is usually required. In such an inversion, the surface must have a temperature below freezing, while the temperature of the atmosphere where the precipitation forms is above freezing.
Freeze-Thaw Action
Processes associated with daily and seasonal cycles of freezing and melting.
See chlorofluorocarbons.
Fresh Water
Water that is relatively free of salts.
Resistance between the contact surfaces of two bodies in motion.
Frictional Force
Force acting on wind near the Earth's surface due to frictional roughness. Causes the deceleration of wind.
Transition zone between air masses with different weather characteristics.
Frontal Fog
Is a type of fog that is associated with weather fronts, particularly warm fronts. This type of fog develops when frontal precipitation falling into the colder air ahead of the warm front causes the air to become saturated through evaporation.
Frontal Lifting
Lifting of a warmer or less dense air mass by a colder or more dense air mass at a frontal transitional zone.
Frontal Precipitation
See convergence precipitation.
Deposition of ice at the Earth's surface because of atmospheric cooling.
Frost Creep
Slow mass movement of soil downslope that is initiated by freeze-thaw action. Occurs where the stresses on the slope material are too small to create a rapid failure.
Frost Point
Is the temperature at which water vapor saturates from an air mass into solid usually forming snow or frost. Frost point normally occurs when a mass of air has a relative humidity of 100%.
Frost Wedging
A process of physical weathering in which water freezes in a crack and exerts force on the rock causing further rupture.
Fujita Tornado Intensity Scale
Tornado classification system developed by T. Theodore Fujita. This system six levels from F0 to F5. These levels are based on the estimated speed of the tornado's winds from proxy information like property damage.
Fundamental Niche
Describes the total range of environmental conditions that are suitable for a species existence without the effects of interspecific competition and predation from other species.
Group, at the kingdom level, in the classification of life. Multicellular organisms that have a eukaryotic cell type, mitochondria, and a cell wall composed of chitin and other noncellulose polysaccharides.
Funnel Cloud
A tornado which is beginning its descent from the base of a cumulonimbus cloud. This severe weather event may or may not reach the ground surface.
Fusion (Nuclear)
Process where the mass of an atomic nucleus is made larger by the addition of subatomic particles. This process releases atomic energy in the form of heat and electromagnetic radiation.




Citation: Pidwirny, M. (2006). "Glossary of Terms: F". Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition. Date Viewed.



Created by Dr. Michael Pidwirny & Scott Jones University of British Columbia Okanagan

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05/07/2009 15:26