Glossary of Terms: V
- (1) Space devoid of atoms or molecules.
- (2) Emptying of air.
- A linear depression in the landscape that slopes
down to a stream, lake or
Formed by water and/or ice erosion.
- Valley Breeze
- Local thermal
circulation pattern found in areas of
topographic relief. In this circulation system,
surface winds blow from the valley bottom to
areas of higher elevation during the daytime.
- Valley Fog
- Fog formed
by the movement of cooler, more dense air from higher
elevations to the warm valley bottom.
- Valley Train
- A linear accumulation of glaciofluvial outwash sediments found
in a once glaciated valley.
- Valley Wall
- The side slope of a stream or glacial valley.
- Vapor Pressure
- Pressure exerted
by water vapor molecules in a given quantity of atmosphere.
- A statistical measure of the dispersion of observation
values in a data set. The variance of a sample is
the sum of the square of each value in the data set
subtracted from the mean divided
by one less than the total number of observations
in the data set.
- A thin yearly deposit of sediment found
on the bottom of a lake.
Within each yearly varve, there are variations in
the color and the texture of
the material deposited. The thickness of the varve
and its associated layers can be used to reconstruct
past environmental conditions
influencing the lake.
- Vascular Plant
- Plant that
has vascular tissues to transport water, nutrients,
and other metabolic products.
- The speed of movement of an object in one direction.
- A loose piece of rock that has been polished smooth
by wind transported particles.
Common in arid environments.
- An increase in the velocity of
a fluid or gas due to the constriction of flow.
- Vernal Equinox
- One of two days during the year when the declination of
the Sun is at the equator. The vernal equinox denotes
the first day of the spring season. For the Northern
Hemisphere, the date of vernal equinox on either
March 20 or 21 (changes yearly). September 22 or
23 is the date of the vernal equinox in the Southern
Hemisphere. During the vernal equinox, all locations
on the Earth (except the poles) experience equal
(12 hour) day and night.
- Animal that
does have a backbone. Also see invertebrate.
- Vertical Aerial Photograph
- Photograph taken from a overhead or near overhead
angle from a platform in the atmosphere.
- (1) Soil order
(type) of the United
States Natural Resources Conservation Service Soil
Classification System. Tropical or sub-tropical
soil that has a high clay and
base cation status.
- (2) Soil order
(type) of the Canadian
System of Soil Classification. This soil
has a high clay content and exhibits the effects
of extreme contraction-expansion due to temporal
changes in soil water content.
- Is a fragment of DNA or RNA that
depends on the infection of host cells for their
reproduction. They are not cells. Viruses are thought
to parts of the genetic code found in either eukaryote or prokaryote cells
that have the ability to exist on their own. At times
viruses are metabolically inert and technically non-living.
- The amount of the resistance to flow in a fluid
due to intermolecular friction.
- Volatile Organic
- Organic molecules
that are mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms
(hydrocarbons). The most common volatile
organic compound release into the atmosphere is methane. Involved in the formation of photochemical
- Volcanic Ash
- Small sized particles ejected from explosive volcanoes.
- Volcanic Neck
- See volcanic pipe.
- Volcanic Pipe
- A dyke reaches
the surface of the Earth. Also called volcanic
- Volcanic Vent
- An opening on a volcano through
which lava is
released and rock fragments
and ash are ejected.
- An elevated area of land created from the release
of lava and ejection of ash and rock fragments
from and volcanic vent.
- The process where a solid or liquid substance is
converted into a gas.
- The occupation of space in three dimensions. Measured
in cubic units.
- A rapid spiraling motion of air or liquid around
a center of rotation.
M. (2006). "Glossary of Terms: V". Fundamentals of Physical Geography,
2nd Edition. Date